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    老子網_老子文化網_老子文化傳承

    丘成桐:數學強國夢

    2019-5-16 20:29| 發布者: 上善若水| 查看: 217| 評論: 0|來自: 人民日報

    摘要: 丘成桐不拿中國薪水,卻立志幫中國成為數學強國。

    33歲摘得世界最高榮譽,被稱為數學王國的“凱撒大帝”;他香港長大,美國工作,卻割舍不斷對祖國的情感;他不拿薪水,擔當國內四家數學科學中心主任;他直言不諱,批判數學界的學術腐敗。他就是數學家丘成桐。

     

    香港長大,美國成名

     

    可他的一顆中國心始終未變

     

    1949年,丘成桐出生在廣東汕頭,同年隨父母移居香港。父親丘鎮英曾是香港中文大學崇基學院的教師,丘成桐從小接受到良好的教育。然而在他14歲那年,父親突然離世,家庭陷入了困頓。

     

     

     

    丘成桐一邊打工一邊學習,17歲考入香港中文大學數學系,開始了他的數學之旅。因為成績優異,丘成桐被推薦至美國伯克利大學深造,在那里得到了數學大師陳省身的言傳身教。

     

     

     

    數學博士畢業后,他定居美國。1979年,丘成桐受當時中科院數學所所長華羅庚的邀請,第一次訪華。自出生之后的30年后,他再次踏上了祖國的土地。

     

    丘成桐:下飛機,我伸手摸了一下北京機場的地,我終于到了中國內地。

     

     

     

    雖然丘成桐很早就離開中國到美國學習和工作,但他從小學習中國歷史和哲學,喜歡吃中國菜、聽中國話,對祖國的情感從沒有因為離開而改變。

     

    丘成桐:我前些年去甘肅走絲綢之路,感覺很好,跟我在看歷史書時的想法能夠共鳴。我去英國看大英博物館,去法國看羅浮宮,都很有意思,但引不起我的共鳴。

     

    之后,丘成桐有意招收來自中國的博士研究生,為中國培養數學人才。他發現中國的大學教育沒有做好,因為到哈佛數學系留學的中國學生水平往往不夠。在博士資格考試中,其他國家的學生差不多能夠達到滿分,而中國學生只能拿到一半的分數。

     

     

     

    于是,丘成桐在中國大學發起數學競賽等人才培養計劃。這些年,哈佛招收的中國留學生,數學水平提高了不少。

     

    不拿薪酬

     

    他只求對中國數學有貢獻就行

     

    上世紀90年代以后,丘成桐先后擔任清華大學數學科學中心、香港中文大學數學研究所、中科院晨興數學中心、浙江大學數學中心的主任。出人意料的是,丘成桐沒有從中拿過任何薪水。

     

     

     

    丘成桐:我在這邊是白干的,我覺得對中國數學有貢獻就行了。錢拿了有什么好處呢,買一個房子,開一個好車子,吃飯好一點。我孩子長大了不需要這個錢,我的錢足夠用了。

     

    雖然不拿薪酬,但作為世界知名的數學大家,丘成桐卻四處為數學研究機構籌集資金,呼吁各方支持數學科研。丘成桐直言,自己并不喜歡這樣的活動。

     

     

     

    丘成桐:有些有資本做生意的人很驕傲,我不想理他們,有些人認為我在求他,其實對我自己沒有好處,我是替這個國家著想。我寧愿去旅行,好好欣賞大自然的風景、歷史,這樣會愉快很多。但是要將項目辦好,我還是愿意花點兒功夫籌錢。

     

    他規定中心科研人員不得兼職

     

    稱兼職是不負責任

     

    丘成桐曾經對媒體表示,他生平立志只做好兩件事情。第一,做出一等的數學研究;第二,為中國數學教育服務,幫助中國成為數學強國。

     

    在丘成桐的帶動下,清華大學數學科學中心已經匯集了來自海內外的100多名優秀教師和科研人員,在數學前沿問題的研究、數學人才的培養等方面,影響力與日俱增。

     

     

     

    通過各種方法,丘成桐給這些年輕的數學家盡量豐厚的收入,但明確規定,不準兼職。

     

    丘成桐:舉個例子來說,哈佛大學給我的職位,除了休假的時間,是九個月薪水,假如我這九個月在其他地方兼職,就是犯法的。很多教授到不同地方兼職,到兼職的學校一年可能頂多就去一個星期,可是拿錢還不少,這是完全不負責任的。學生看不到他,老師也看不到他,可是系里面要做什么事還要由他來做主,這是霸權,很不應當的事。

     

    他說奧數培訓機構是“工廠”

     

    急功近利抹殺孩子興趣

     

    全社會對于數學科學重視程度的欠缺讓丘成桐感到擔心。丘成桐認為,中國家長大多數只希望孩子一生平安有錢,卻不鼓勵他們承擔更多的責任。一些孩子明明在數學方面有天分有興趣,家長卻鼓勵他們去念金融,因為金融能夠賺錢。

     

     

     

    在急功近利思想的主導下,原本應該是從孩子的興趣出發,提高孩子思維能力和學習素養的奧數培訓,全然變了樣。

     

    丘成桐:美國的奧數培養是從興趣方面來培養的。假設有幾千個美國小孩子學奧數,至少有幾十個是很好的,很有興趣的。但是中國學奧數的小孩子有兩三個感興趣的就不錯了。奧校變成一個工廠,培養一些小孩子只能解決奧數的問題,完全不是培養興趣的地方。

     

    他指名道姓批評學術腐敗

     

    稱中國數學教育正發生變化

     

    多年來,丘成桐在接受媒體采訪以及其他場合下,對于數學界的學術腐敗問題以及其他不合理現象指名道姓進行批判,往往身陷輿論的旋渦之中。但丘成桐說,對此他并不后悔。

     

     

     

    丘成桐:這個事情不做,問題就改不了。那我到中國來干嗎?我看到大批天真同時有才華的小孩子,假如他們因為某種制度出不了頭,我過意不去。

     

    丘成桐的批判也確實帶來了許多積極的改變。

     

    丘成桐:舉個例子,有些名校十多年二十年前,教授不給本科生上課,現在都在教。很多教育部的官員跟我講,我講的話他們都看了,他們也在改。這幾年中國政府對基本科學越來越重視。因為大數據也好,人工智能也好,背后全部都是數學。沒有基本科學,中國的科技突破不了,總是要跟著人家后面走。

     

    為丘老點贊!

     

     

    未標題-3
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