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    老子網_老子文化網_老子文化傳承

    武強年畫的經營與銷售

    2019-3-31 16:56| 發布者: 上善若水| 查看: 1021| 評論: 0

    摘要: 武強年畫的經營獨具特色,從明清以來一直沿襲著前店后坊的經營模式,以作坊直銷為主,兼營外地批發莊點。




    武強年畫的經營與銷售

    武強年畫的經營獨具特色,從明清以來一直沿襲著前店后坊的經營模式,以作坊直銷為主,兼營外地批發莊點。武強年畫早期發行情況因年代久遠無從可考。清至民國初期,武強年畫產量高,銷售區域廣。據調查,重點銷往全國19個省份131個地區,在外地有批發莊70余處,批發點110余處。直到晚清,武強畫業仍遍布全縣,畫業中心——縣城南關就有畫店一百四十多家,周圍輻射六十多個村莊,“村村點染,戶戶丹青”,堪稱“年畫之縣”。




      

    清至民國初期武強年畫重點發行地域統計表


     

    1937年南關畫店經營情況


     

    畫店


     

    天玉和畫店


     

    東大興畫店


     

    新義成畫店


     

    順祥畫店


     

    吉慶齋畫店


     

    吉慶齋畫店


     

    吉慶齋畫店



    口傳的武強年畫諺語

     

    山東六府半邊天,比不上四川半個川。

    都說天津人馬厚,不如武強一南關。

    一天唱千臺戲,找不到戲臺在哪邊。

     

    武強城四方方,南關處處是畫坊。

    大畫坊,小畫店,人來人往團團轉。

    老太太,小娃娃,一人摟著一抱畫。

    木版年畫貼滿墻,家家過年喜洋洋。

     

    武強不大,大是不大,

    大人小人兒,人人畫畫。

     

    東大興,西大興,

    韓大架子杜老青(南關有名的畫業)。

     

    北關的叮叮當當(指鐵匠打鐵),

    東關的秀才樓房(讀書人多,房好),

    南關的人馬刀槍(或“南關的鳥語花香”,指年畫),

    西關的豆腐糞筐(賣豆腐腦,編糞筐)。

     

    武強年畫一年鼓一張,不知落在哪一方。

     

    南桃(桃花塢)北柳(楊柳青)論畫莊,

    莊稼年畫屬武強。

     

    色紙畫片,賽過綾羅綢緞。

    綾羅綢緞,趕不上色紙畫片。

    獅子老虎大花瓶,吃遍天下不受窮。


     

    雕刻好的畫版



    武強年畫唱賣謠

    在武強年畫的銷售過程中,有部分當地農民在春節之前,身背、肩挑,分赴全國各地,趕集市,打地攤,根據武強年畫特點或畫面內容,編成歌謠,高聲喊唱,以招引顧客。有諺語說:腿快不如嘴快。其言詞有的是前人遺留,有的是增添和改造,不斷豐富。有多種歌謠貼切實際,鄉土味濃,雅俗共賞,別有情趣,形成一種獨特的文化現象。

     

    色又鮮,紙又白,年畫打從武強來。

    門神灶馬花花紙,娃娃美女笑顏開。

    要看還有千臺戲,不敲鑼鼓也唱起來。

    五谷豐登萬民樂,誰買年畫誰發財。

     

    畫兒美,畫兒鮮,買回家去過大年。

    貼在墻上大家看,爺爺奶奶都喜歡。

     

    小小子,胖娃娃,武強南關是他家。

    往北出去三百地,白溝河是他的姥姥家。

     

    武強年畫真有趣,有山水,有小戲;

    有漫畫,有諷刺;有燈謎,有組字。

    有人又有事,有畫又有字,

    你說有趣不有趣?你說帶勁不帶勁?

     

    柳樹柳,槐樹槐,大樹底下搭戲臺。

    今年唱戲真兩樣,不敲鑼鼓不搭臺。

    年畫攤,隨意擺,一出一出唱起來。

    文戲武戲樣樣有,要看好戲不用排。

    花錢少,買家來,大開眼界喜開懷。

    今天看了明天看,好戲一臺連一臺。



    銷往不同地域的武強年畫

     

    武強年畫在多年行銷中,根據各地風俗習慣、審美觀點的差異和需求,形成了不同題材內容面向不同地域的發行特點。如湖北漢口、山東魚臺一帶興“搖錢樹聚寶盆,一團和氣大財神”;西北、東北興窗花;甘肅興橫幅臥美人;河北西部興大中堂、大條屏;正定興大天地;山西喜文樣、喜天地灶馬;陜西喜武樣;山西、陜西興獨君灶;山西喜戲出;西安興老虎、對子瓶;安徽、四川、湖北喜文武樣;河南興蘭草;邢臺、邯鄲一帶有的地方不祭祀關公;回民貼畫不要帶出氣的(人、鳥等動物)等等。

     

    根據1963年武強年畫銷售情況調查:雙花瓶、單花瓶在廣州、福建一帶銷路大;河北興隆一帶有《對獅》、《對虎》的廣泛市場;赤峰一帶興木版麒麟;呼和浩特興獅子、老虎大小窗花。


     

    武強年畫題詩

     

    題《九九消寒圖》

    一九二九不出手,三九四九凌上走,

    五九六九,沿河看柳,

    七九河開河不開,八九燕來燕準來,

    九九加一九,犁牛遍地走。

     

    題《張仙》

    此仙本姓張,流落在下方。

    箭射云中犬,子孫不受傷。

    張仙下天臺,每日把弓開。

    箭射云中狗,子孫準多來。

     

    題《尖頭告狀》

    但有便宜占,不怕自作孽。

    遇見更尖者,給它把尖決。

    牛有兩抵角,尖頭只一個。

    若是雙料的,與牛差不多。

    原告本尖頭,被告頭更尖。

    不若二差人,尖中帶拐彎。

    尖上更帶刺,還得數著官。

     

    題《猴搶草帽》

    來此山道,猴搶草帽。

    無法治它,一場好鬧,買賣風快。

    猴子成了精,占山劫路行。

    遇見草帽商,押解到山中。

     

    題《賜福財神》

    我本中華一財神,玉帝命我下方尋。

    察看人間惡與善,積善之家賜金銀。

    多賞珠寶搖錢樹,增福增壽增子孫。

    冠帶傳留子得寶,富貴榮華萬萬春。

     

    題《財公財母》

    發福生財地,堆金積玉門。

    錢龍引進了,請來喜福神。



    武強年畫的銷售方式

    武強年畫的銷售方式主要有:客戶上門、外出販賣、畫店在外地設批發莊點等。除了大宗的批發業務,更多年畫是通過商販進行銷售,為了招攬顧客,他們常常根據年畫內容,編唱歌謠,有效地促進了年畫銷售。

     

    色又鮮,紙又白,年畫打從武強來。

    門神灶馬花花紙,娃娃美女笑顏開。

    要看還有千臺戲,不敲鑼鼓也唱起來。

    五谷豐登萬民樂,誰買年畫誰發財。

     

    經營特色

    成本低:密集生產 旺淡結合

    樣子新:時有創新 繼承發展

    出手快:深入民間 連唱帶賣

    貨物全:雅俗共賞 照顧檔次











    未標題-3
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